The History of Suture Material
The history of the appearance of suture material started many years B.C. even at that time in a Chinese treatise were mentioned intestinal and skin sutures using " phytogenous strings".
A hundred years B.C. Caraka Samhita described in details the usage of ants with broad jaws at operations on people. The width of their jaws was about 7 mm. With the jaws the edges of the wound were put together. Then the body of the ant cut off the head, that was left in the wound.
Lately Indian surgeon Susruta described different materials for sutures -a hair of horse, cotton, flaps of skin, fibers of trees and animal sinews.
In 175 A.D. a famous surgeon Galen described Catgut. It is interesting that in English it means intestine of a cat. In Rome word " Catgut" came from the word kitgut or kitstring - lace or string for knapsack of a Rome legionary. In Europe kit changed to cat and everybody started to pronounce "catgut". In the 19th century Josef Lister described the methods of sterilization of string Catgut and they came into practice as the only resolving strings.
In the 11th century the usage of SILK in the surgery was described. But the broad usage of it started only in the 20th century by Koher. Later many European surgeons took over that material very fast.
A great interest for the surgeons of 20th century was the tissues of the body itself as the suture material. Different resolving materials used like nerves of a dog( Preobrazhenskii P.M.), whalebone, the sinews of rat tails, the sinews and vessels of nutrias, cats, the sinews of deer and other. Although neither of these methods found a use in surgery.
In the 20th century German researches Germann and Hohl obtained polyvinyl alcohol that considered to be the first synthetic resolving material. A bit later in America a famous surgeon Coroters repeated the discovery of German scientists and called the obtained material nylon.
In the 30-ies of the 20th century in foreign laboratories were created two synthetic suture materials - Capron(polyamide) and lavsan(polyester).
A.R. Katz in 1962 changed the method of polymerization of polyester and got "linear polyester". The linearity of molecular components increased the durability, inactivity and high stability of ethers. In that way polypropylene appeared a quarter of a century later.
In 1974 was introduced vicril as copolymer of lactide and glycolide. In comparison to dexon vikril keeps its durability for a longer period of time.
In 1980 appeared mono synthetic absorbed suture materials Maxon and PDS.
In 1991 was created one more synthetic suture material of a new generation - Polysorb.
And in 1994-1996 were created synthetic suture materials biosin and monokril.
For coming true the elaboration of the leading specialist of the country in the area of needle and high-precision technologies, such as getting needles ultrapure surface, getting ion-vacuum colored surfaces, getting three-stage sensitive sharpening and realization especially solid interlocks of surgical sutures with needles was established company "VOLOT".
So today is the age of synthetic resolving suture materials.